involves the study of minerals in terms of their size, habit, chemical composition, morphology,
textural position, association and other attributes.
X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), image analysis, quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
are becoming routine methods and supplement traditional microscopic studies and geochemical analysis.
Electron Probe Micro Analyser (EPMA)
Electron probe Microanalyser is a very sophisticated micro-beam instrument for non destructive in situ chemical analysis of elements in
minerals ranging from Beryllium to Uranium with detection limits 0.1 to 0.01% using in built Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometers (WDS) and
Energy Dispersve Spectrometer (EDS).
Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study
Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser source.
Inelastic scattering means that the frequency of photons in monochromatic light changes upon interaction with a sample.
X-Ray Fluorescence Study (XRF)
An X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is an x-ray instrument used for routine, relatively non-destructive chemical analyses of rocks,
minerals, sediments and fluids. It works on wavelength-dispersive spectroscopic principles.
Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS)
Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a direct sampling analytical technology that enables highly
sensitive elemental and isotopic analyses on solid samples.
Scanning Electron Microscope Study (SEM)
A scanning electron microscope(SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces high resolution images of surface of a sample by
scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain
information about the sample's surface topography and composition.
X-Ray Diffraction Study (XRD)
X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for mineral phase identification of a crystalline material
and can provide information on unit cell parameters. The samples finely ground, homogenized, and average bulk mineral composition is determined.
Fluid Inclusion Studies
Fluid inclusions are microscopic bubbles of liquid and gas that are trapped within crystals. As minerals often form from a liquid or aqueous medium,
tiny blebs of that liquid can become trapped within the crystal structure or in healed fractures within a crystal.
Experimental Petrology Studies
Experimental petrology employs high-pressure, high-temperature apparatus to investigate the geochemistry and phase relations of natural or
synthetic materials at elevated pressures and temperatures.